-Difficulties pronouncing sounds, or articulation disorders, and stuttering are examples of speech disorders. When a person has trouble understanding others (receptive language), or sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings completely (expressive language), then he or she has a language disorder.
-Acquired language disorders, however, are caused by brain damage sustained during a stroke, seizure, or other head injury. Aside from brain injury or head trauma, some other known causes of acquired language disorders are: Hearing loss at an early age. Neurological disorders
-If your child has been diagnosed with a language disorder, you’ll need a team of experts that includes a speech-language pathologist, audiologist, and specially trained teachers.
-SLPs can help children with language disorders. They work on language problems found during the evaluation. They work with you, teachers, and other professionals to improve speech and language skills. Good language skills help with learning, behavior, self- esteem, and social skills.
-Articulation disorders refer to errors in speech sounds by mispronouncing, substituting, or leaving out the sound. It is age-appropriate for children at certain ages to be producing errors with particular sounds. However, if a child is producing an error with a sound that they should have acquired, they may have an articulation disorder. Articulation disorders may impact a child’s speech intelligibility when communicating with others.
-An articulation disorder may be attributed to hearing loss, neurological disorders, physical impairments such as cleft lip or palate, vocal abuse or misuse, hypotonia, oral-motor skills, or difficulty with placement of articulators. However, the cause of the disorder is often unknown.
-Children that are unintelligible to others at age 3 or older may be demonstrating an articulation disorder. Additionally, if they are unable to say sounds that the majority of their peers have mastered, they may be showing signs of an articulation disorder. If you are unsure of what age your child should be making certain sounds, contact a speech-language pathologist for more information.
-If your child has an articulation disorder, intervention and therapy by a speech-language pathologist is generally recommended. The therapist will assist your child to produce correct articulator (tongue, lips, teeth) placement and voicing to generate the sound. Practice outside of therapy sessions is very important to achieve progress.
- Fluency is prosodic aspects of speech. It includes continuity, effort rate intonation and stress. A person is said to have fluency in speaking when his or her speech has a uninterrupted continuous flow of words, appropriate pauses and rhythm, intonation and stress patterns.
- Fluency develops from childhood to adolescence period. The development starts early in life and children often exhibit non fluent behaviors between 2-4years of age. This stage is a part of developmental stages and is commonly known as normal non fluency. The children are not so fluent in this phase and often exhibit word repetitions, prolongations and incomplete phrases.
- The behavior however is vulnerable to get converted into actual diffluent behavior if interrupted. Parents usually expect children to speak fluently and often instruct negatively which may affect the child’s development and children may develop stuttering, a type of fluency disorder. Parental pressure and peer pressure being one of the causes of developing dysfluent behavior.
-The fluency disorders can be developmental, psychogenic, neurogenic type. The developmental fluency disorders include stuttering and cluttering. Developmental disorders mainly have onset early in life eg. Below 5 yrs of age. The neurogenic type include stuttering secondary to any neurological conditions such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, viral infections trauma to brain etc.
- Cluttering is a type of disorder where dysfluent behavior is superficial layer of the problem in which patient usually has fast rate of speech and there is central language imbalance. The individualVoice disorders
-Voice disorders are medical conditions involving abnormal pitch, loudness or quality of the sound produced by the larynx and thereby affecting speech production. Types of voice disorders are:
-Benign non-cancerous growths on the vocal cords are most often caused by voice misuse or overuse, which causes trauma to the vocal cords. These lesions (or “bumps”) on the vocal cord(s) alter vocal cord vibration and lead to hoarseness.
-There are four main causes of voice disorders:
A. Vocal abuse
B. Neurogenic disorders
C. Psychogenic disorders
D. Alaryngeal communication
-About 3-6% of school-aged children and 3-9% of adults are affected by voice disorders.
-Voice disorders can be assessed and treated by a speech language therapist. Voice therapy provides a very effective and non-surgical solution to voice disorders.